Drawings by Mel Bartels

Four more Integrated Flux Nebulae sketched at the Oregon Star Party: a surprising cocoon surrounding M13 of all objects, a large IFN in Corona Australis and two nice IFN in the foreground of faint NGC galaxies.

Three more IFNs: the Iris nebula with IFN/ISM (Integrated Stellar Medium) to the south of the nebula proper, a galaxy/IFN pairing: NGC 6951 and an unusual pairing of a planetary nebula and the IFN. The latter two are small in angular size so likely will look more detailed and dramatic in a larger wide angle telescope.

Five more IFNs: the beautiful gossamer Barnard's Galaxy region, the bright Epsilon Lyrae area, the Alcor and Mizar area, the Alpha Herculis region, the Alpha Herculis area and the M92 area.

Five more IFNs including one of the most remarkable objects of any type I've observed: a narrow arrow straight IFN extending from Serpens Caput past Libra to Virgo - 40 degrees long. The Vega IFN is surprisingly bright in crowded fields of stars. The Big Dipper's IFN starts as an easily seen arc next to Megrez. The star Arcturus sports several IFN: two to the west and one to the east. Finally, the IFN above the star Nekkar at the northern tip of Bootes may form a larger arc that includes the M51 to M63 IFN.

Two more IFNs with interesting shapes: first is west of Draco's Head and the second is near Eta Draconis.

The Draco Dwarf Galaxy proved very difficult and fairly confusing: difficult because it was so faint and confusing because of the brighter nearby IFN! In the end though a rewarding view. The galaxy, comprised of old stars, is thought to be one of the most dark matter dominated known.

My first attempt at sketching a long IFN streamer. This streamer of galactic cirrus is maybe 20 degrees long, stretching from SE Hercules to Serpens Caput.

The Blue horsehead nebula, IC4592 and IC 4601.

Two new Integrated Flux Nebulae near Denebola, Leo's tail.

A new Integrated Flux Nebula discovery in the wide angle field of M51 and M63, the Whirlpool and Sunflower Galaxies under excellent transparency of SQM 21.63.

A new Integrated Flux Nebula immediately south and east of M64, the Blackeye Galaxy. My first sketch shows the dim glow under SQM 21.1 skies; the last sketch shows how much more can be seen in better skies of SQM 21.4. I also include the matching area from the Plank Thermal Map. My second sketch shows a glow adjacent to the east that's missing from the infrared map. This must be blue light reflected from dust that comprises the IFN.

The Virgo Cluster Markarian's Chain Integrated Flux Nebula is surprising, both for its distance from the galactic plane and for its relative brightness. Though sparse in detail, the juxtaposition of the nearest galaxy cluster with our own Milky Way's galactic cirrus makes for a busy field.

The Volcano Integrated Flux Nebula MW3 is the brightest IFN and very easy to find. Lots of detail awaits those who spend a great deal of time here.

The Polaris Integrated Flux Nebula MW1 is centered on Polaris and begins a very long chain of IFN. It's not the brightest IFN.

Angel - Integrated Flux Nebula. My first IFN that is not associated with another deep sky object. I am really thrilled to see it; and you know, it's relatively easy. In fact, a couple of times I got lost, so instead of star hopping from M81/82, I followed the IFN from the galaxy pair to the chain of stars to the Angel's side. The star denoted the Angel's eye, HD 90696, is a nice star hop from M81/82. A Nebustar filter helped, but was certainly not required. In fact, after using the filter, I found the nebula harder to trace, a curious 'post-filter' effect. It does not take much aperture to see the Angel - just a wide field and very dark skies.

Leo Triplet (M65, M66, NGC 3628) with IFN. This is a simply beautiful view, the large galaxies with their dusky gray to nearly white hues with the IFN encircling the galaxy trio. For decades I've enjoyed the trio, yet simply failed to notice subtle changes in the foreground glow. I also managed to glimpse portions of NGC 3628's tidal extension that reaches to the IFN. A Skyglow filter helped with the IFN, but dimmed the galaxies.

M44 with the Integrated Flux Nebula. I swung my scope over to the Beehive Cluster after an hour and a half of intense observing, intending to enjoy a relaxing super-wide angle view of a bright popular object. To my astonishment I saw broad nebulosity - the IFN. I used my 10.5 inch [27cm] F2.7 reflector at 40x with a 2.5 deg FOV and a NPB filter.

M81, M82 and the Integrated Flux Nebula. An incredible observing experience, seeing the Integrated Flux Nebula with my 10.5 inch [27cm] F2.7 reflector at 40x with a 2.5 deg FOV and a NPB filter.

Cone Nebula, Christmas Tree cluster. Best view was with the 13mm Ethos and UHC filter at 1.1 deg FOV and 90x. The view at lower power with the 21mm Ethos and 1.8 deg FOV at 55x showed more of the surrounding nebulosity but made the Cone too small and indistinct. At the lower power, the NPB filter worked best. Without a filter, the Cone was hardly there.

SH2-308, a Wolf-Rayet shell

IC443, the Jellyfish Nebula

The extended HorseHead Nebula area (IC434)

Abell 12, a faint planetary almost touching Mu Orionis

The 'Ring' of Betelgeuse is broken into clumpy dark nebulae with B36 the dominant feature on the western side as a long diagonal streak. There are offshoots to the northwest, one leading to B35. The arced bell to the north of Betelgeuse is clumpy and splotchy. The long curved section to the south of Betelgeuse is beautiful - subtle, mottled, striated.

The Flying Bat and Giant Squid. The Flying Bat is the huge arc to the left of the field and the Giant Squid is the bipolar nebula in the middle of the field. They are known as SH2-129 and OU4. The red carbon star is V419 Cephei.

Orion-Eridanus Super Bubble, SH2-245, SH2-264 and the southern arc of Barnard's Loop.

unobserved wide angle objects

dark nebulae sketches

Comet Hergenrother Oct 7, 2012, Cottage Grove Lake, 13 inch [34cm] f3.0

Hoag's Object, a ring galaxy, 20 inch, I could see the ring about 20% of the time with an eyepiece yielding a 4mm exit pupil

The Elephant's Trunk, 20 inch at 4mm exit pupil with OIII filter

The Garnet Star

The Gegenshein to the northeast (left) of Capricornus with the Milky Way to the northwest (right)